The global impact of HIV/AIDS is significant, with approximately 37.7 million people living with the virus in 2020. Around 1.5 million new cases were recorded that year, and 680,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses. While antiretroviral therapy has improved survival rates, access to treatment remains unequal. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa, where over two-thirds of all infected individuals reside. Key populations such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injecting drug users are at higher risk. Prevention, early diagnosis, and equitable distribution of treatments remain critical in fighting this pandemic.